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Information about the Crown Accounts Analysis

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Availability

Valid From: ..06/30/1991
To: .. Ongoing
Frequency: ..Annually



Design
Purpose: The analysis of the Crown accounts records the financial transactions of the Government with all other economic sectors, such as private enterprise, households, local government, state owned enterprises and the rest of the world. The coverage corresponds to the Government's Financial Statements, but presents these data in a New Zealand System of National Accounts (NZSNA) format. The analysis therefore provides an alternative statement of the major revenue and expenditure items.

General Information ..
Coverage of the analysis
The statistics contained in this release relate to fiscal years (June years). This is consistent with the balance date of the Government's financial statements.

The analysis reflects the change in the government's accounting conventions. From 1992 departmental income and expenditure was recorded on an accrual basis with the Crown transactions (receipts and payments) continuing to be recorded on a cash basis. From 1995, all transactions were reported on an accrual basis. In compiling the accounts, no adjustments have been made to convert all the transactions to a consistent cash (or accrual) basis. The transactions included in these accounts are therefore both cash and accrual.

The analysis of the Crown accounts covers:

a. Ministers of the Crown

b. Departments

c. Offices of Parliament.

The institutions not fully reported in this analysis are:

a. State-owned enterprises such as New Zealand Post Ltd

b. Crown-owned entities, either dependent on funding from Parliament, such as the Law Commission, or self-funded organisations, such as the Earthquake Commission

c. The Reserve Bank of New Zealand.

However, funding grants to Crown entities, and flows of funds between the core Crown and these other types of organisations are included.

In terms of the New Zealand Institutional Sector Classification 1996 (NZISC) the Crown Account Analysis (CAA) covers the core government units classified to institutional sector 3.11.

Classification of transactions
One of the main purposes of this analysis is to enable an examination of the effects of government activity on the economy. Transactions are therefore classified in two ways:

By economic type: This groups the payments and receipts according to the type of transaction involved, this is whether they are current or capital, and if current, whether they relate to transactions in goods and services or to transfers. For convenience, a number of these are further analysed by the sector of the economic unit associated with the transaction, for example current transfers to households.

By purpose: This brings together outlays with similar objectives to reveal more fully the broad purposes of public sector spending. It helps to provide a framework for developing assessments of the effectiveness of outlays in meeting government policy objectives.


Target Population

Population covered

Statistical Unit

Selection Unit

Collection Unit

Under Coverage

Population and Sample Size
Target Population

Population covered

Statistical Unit

Selection Unit

Collection Unit

Under Coverage

Population and Sample Size








Output Variables

Output variables are pieces of individual information that can be extracted from the survey/output data. Often output variables can be cross tabulated with other output variables, for example sales by industry classification. The list below contains all current and past output variables which have been released for this survey/output.

Description of the tables
The layout of these tables closely follows that recommended in the SNA1993(1), although some item descriptions differ in order to match as closely as possible the terminology used in the Government's own accounts.

Table 1: Current Account – Records all current transactions other than those relating to the production of goods and services by market units of government departments (see Table 3). Saving is the residual item in the account.

Table 2: Capital Finance Account – Records the accumulation of all capital items, and how these are financed after net capital transfers have been accounted for. Net borrowing/lending, is the residual of the capital finance account. If accumulation is greater than the funds available for its financing, then the balance must be 'borrowed'. Conversely, if funds available to finance capital accumulation are greater than the amount spent on accumulation, then the balance will be available for 'lending'. The composition of net borrowing/lending, that is the net acquisition of financial assets and financial liabilities, is not shown in this account.

A number of major transactions that do not involve an actual cash payment are included, such as debt write-offs of earlier years. These are classified to capital transfers and are included in the capital account.

Transactions relating to major projects and producer boards refinancing are included, as are transactions relating to other debt restructuring. Not included are miscellaneous financing transactions relating to the establishment of state-owned enterprises and their subsequent sale. These are classified as transactions in financial assets and liabilities and do not affect either savings or net borrowing.

Table 3: Production Account: Market Units – Summarises the trading accounts for those departments with units involved in the production of goods and services for sale. The residual in the account is operating surplus. Operating surplus also appears in Table 1 as a source of finance.

Table 4: Taxation Revenue – Shows taxation revenue by type of tax collected.

Table 5: Social Assistance Benefits Paid in Cash and in Kind – Shows social assistance grants paid to households by type of benefit.

Table 6: Outlays by Purpose – Presents current and capital outlays by the Crown according to functional expenditure groups. The functional categories use the Classification of Functions of Government (COFOG) standard.

Table 7: Reconciliation of SNA Saving and the Crown Operating Balance – Records the groups of transactions required to match SNA saving with the Crown's operating balance. The financial statements of the Crown are prepared according to generally accepted accounting practice (GAAP). The Crown Accounts Analysis presents the financial transactions of the Crown within the framework of NZSNA. This table shows the reconciliation of the NZSNA savings figure to the Crown's operating balance.

Income and expense transactions are generally treated in a similar manner by NZSNA and GAAP. However, whereas the NZSNA is a framework designed to facilitate macro-economic analysis and is required to record consistent entries for all institutions across the economy, the Crown's financial statement's are designed for general purpose financial reporting of the Crown reporting entities. The different objectives of the two systems lead to some variation in the treatment of certain items. This differing treatment relates predominantly to the definitions of revenues and expenses under the two frameworks. Some of the major differences are described in the table below.



Explanation of Main Differences between GAAP and NZSNA Reporting
Issue
GAAP Treatment
NZSNA Treatment
Asset/liability revaluations
Treated as part of operating expenses.
Treated as revaluations and therefore removed from expenses.
Gains/losses on assets sales
Treated as part of operating revenues/expenses.
Treated as revaluations and therefore removed from revenues/expenses.
Debt provisions and write-offs
Treated as part of operating expenses.
Act of creating provisions is not considered an economic event and is therefore not considered an expense.
Additions to military equipment less depreciation
Additions to military equipment are treated as capital expenditure and appear as an asset on the balance sheet. Depreciation expense on assets is recorded in the operating statement.
Additions to military equipment are treated as an expense, and do not appear as an asset on the balance sheet. No depreciation is recorded in the operating statement.


(1) Commission of the European Communities, IMF, OECD, United Nations, World Bank (1993). System of National Accounts 1993, Brussels/Luxemburg, New York, Paris, Washington DC.

Changes in Output Variables over time





Guide to Interpreting Data

Summary of Changes to Survey/Output ..

Usage and Limitations of the Data ..The definitions and classifications used in the analysis are consistent year on year. This is especially important in analysing trends, and overcomes any inconsistencies that might arise due to changes in the presentation and/or accounting treatments used in the Government's own accounts.

It should be noted that although the series provide a valuable analysis tool, they do not yet provide a comprehensive picture of government activity. Still to be developed are detailed financial transactions tables, a government balance sheet, and the expression of some expenditure flows in constant prices.

Related Data Sources ..Crown Health Enterprise Statistics
Annual and Quarterly Gross Domestic Product Production and Expenditure - central government

Sampling Errors ..

Non-sampling errors

Caveats on Release ..None




    Give examples of type of customised output made available



Catalogue & Reference Numbers

HOTP:54.001
INFOS: The data in the tables is available on INFOS, Statistics New Zealand’s on-line computer information system. Series are identified by an alphabetical code which is explained below.

Identifiers are made up as follows:

CAAA.S1C represents central Government series


CAAA.S1CA = Current account

CAAA.S1CA1 = Current expenditure
CAAA.S1CA1A = Intermediate consumption
CAAA.S1CA1B = Compensation of employees
CAAA.S1CA1C = Consumption of fixed capital
CAAA.S1CA1D = Taxes on production
CAAA.S1CA1F = Sales revenue
CAAA.S1CA1G = Social assistance benefits in kind
CAAA.S1CA1H = Final consumption expenditure
CAAA.S1CA1I = Interest paid in New Zealand dollars
CAAA.S1CA1J = Interest paid in foreign currency
CAAA.S1CA1K = Subsidies
CAAA.S1CA1L = Other current taxes
CAAA.S1CA1M = Current transfers – social assistance benefits in cash
CAAA.S1CA1N = Current transfers – other Government
CAAA.S1CA1O = Current transfers – other NZ residents
CAAA.S1CA1P = Current transfers – rest of the world
CAAA.S1CA1Q = Saving
CAAA.S1CA1Z = Total current expenditure

CAAA.S1CA2 = current income
CAAA.S1CA2A = Operating surplus
CAAA.S1CA2B = Interest income
CAAA.S1CA2C = Income from dividends and profits
CAAA.S1CA2D = Income from rent on natural assets
CAAA.S1CA2E = Taxes on production and imports – GST, net
CAAA.S1CA2F = Taxes on production and imports – other
CAAA.S1CA2G = Income taxes
CAAA.S1CA2H = Other current taxes
CAAA.S1CA2I = Social contributions
CAAA.S1CA2J = Current transfers
CAAA.S1CA2Z = Total current income


CAAA.S1CB = Capital finance account

CAAA.S1CB1A = Gross fixed capital formation
CAAA.S1CB1B = Change in inventories
CAAA.S1CB1C = Net purchases of land and other tangible non-produced assets
CAAA.S1CB1D = Net purchases of non-produced non-financial intangible assets
CAAA.S1CB1E = Net purchases of valuables
CAAA.S1CB1F = Investment grants
CAAA.S1CB1G = Capital transfers – local government
CAAA.S1CB1H = Capital transfers – central government
CAAA.S1CB1I = Capital transfers – rest of world
CAAA.S1CB1J = Capital transfers – other
CAAA.S1CB1Z = Total capital expenditure

CAAA.S1CB2A = Saving
CAAA.S1CB2B = Consumption of fixed capital
CAAA.S1CB2C = Capital taxes
CAAA.S1CB2D = Capital transfers
CAAA.S1CB2E = Net borrowing/net lending
CAAA.S1CB2Z = Total financing of capital expenditure


CAAA.S1CC = Production account – market units

CAAA.S1CCA = Intermediate consumption
CAAA.S1CCB = Compensation of employees
CAAA.S1CCC = Consumption of fixed capital
CAAA.S1CCD = Taxes on production and imports
CAAA.S1CCE = Operating surplus
CAAA.S1CCZ = Total output







Other Comments





Classification(s) used




Glossary of Terms


Current expenditure
Intermediate consumption: Value of goods and services used in producing government output. Included are costs associated with rent, power and other office overheads. In addition, some output of market units is imputed to be 'purchased' by the non-market parent. The income from sales on the market does not necessarily cover their costs of production, and this deficit is treated as 'other expenses'.

Consumption of fixed capital: Depreciation as recorded by the Crown has been used as a proxy for consumption of fixed capital. This is not equivalent to consumption of fixed capital as recorded by in the National Accounts.

Compensation of employees: Payments of salaries and wages, both in cash and in kind. The latter refers to the value of fringe benefits in goods and services given to employees as payment for labour. Levies paid to the Accident Compensation Corporation by employers on behalf of employees, and government payments to superannuation funds on behalf of government employees are re-routed as compensation of employees.

Taxes on production: These are taxes assessed on departments in respect of their role as producers of government services. They include the value of withholding tax levied on superannuation payments made by employers on the employees' behalf, fringe benefit taxes paid for compensation in kind to employees and local authority rates.

Sales revenue: Sum of sales of goods and services by the non-market units, plus imputed sales to employees for goods and services, such as fringe benefits.

Social assistance benefits in kind: Are the purchase of goods by Government for the direct benefit of households. They include payments made in the health sector, for example, payments of pharmaceutical benefits and the general medical services benefit. Also included are the government grants paid to private hospitals on behalf of individual patients and current transfers to schools outside the State system, which receive grants on a per capita basis.

Final Consumption Expenditure (FCE): Value of goods and services provided by Government for current consumption by the community. FCE is valued at the net cost of providing government services plus social assistance benefits in kind. The net cost of providing government services is valued as the sum of costs, less the value of any sales of goods and services or own account capital formation.

Interest: Largely consists of debt servicing, but also includes other interest payments, such as interest paid as part of major project refinancing, discounts and premiums on finance raised. Interest payments are further split into those paid in New Zealand dollars and those paid in foreign currencies. Where it is not clear, it has been assumed payments are made in New Zealand dollars.

Subsidies: Subsidies are current unrequited payments that Government makes to private and public enterprises. These payments ensure a guaranteed price, or enable market prices of goods and services to be held below the costs of production. Subsidies are not payable to final consumers, and monetary benefits paid to households are treated as social assistance benefit in cash. Subsidies also do not include grants that Government may make to enterprises in order to finance their capital formation, or compensate them for damage to their capital assets, such grants are treated as capital transfers.

Current transfers: Unrequited transfers of income. The transfers add to the current income of recipients for such purposes as consumption expenditure. Current transfers paid have been grouped according to the institutional sector of the recipient.

Social assistance benefits in cash: Cash paid to individuals and households. This includes the unemployment benefit, domestic purposes benefit, NZ Superannuation, and disability allowances.

Current transfers – other Government: Current transfers between the different sub-sectors of general Government. They include current transfers between different levels of Government, such as between central and local government. Major components in this category are funding for District Health Boards, education, and Transit New Zealand. Current transfers to other government functions do not include transfers of funds committed to finance gross fixed capital formation. Such transfers are treated as capital transfers.

Current transfers – other New Zealand residents: Transfers to private-non-profit (PNP) organisations.

Current transfers – rest of world: Current transfers between governments of different countries or between the Government and international organisations. It includes items such as contributions to meeting the operating cost of international organisations, relief contributions and overseas aid.

Saving: Residual item in the current account. It may be positive or negative depending on whether current income exceeds current expenditure, or vice versa.

Current income
Operating surplus: This originates from the Crown's market units that are classified within the scope of sector 3.11 (NZISC). It equates to the residual item in the production account of these market-oriented government units and is a measure of the surplus accruing from the production process. It is equal to their output less the sum of intermediate consumption, compensation of employees, consumption of fixed capital and taxes on production net of subsidies.

Interest: Interest received on marketable securities and advances. Receipts of interest are recorded gross when possible. It may differ therefore to that recorded in the Government's financial statements when, in some cases, interest expense has been netted off receipts.

Dividends and profits: Profits and dividends received by the Crown, including payments from SOEs.

Rent on natural assets: This includes rent on land and royalties that Government receives for extraction of natural assets, such as coal, iron sands and minerals. Rental income from leasing buildings is included in sales revenue.

Taxes on production and imports – GST, Net: Value of Goods and Services Tax (GST), net of amounts paid via annual appropriations.

Taxes on production and imports – other: Taxes on goods and services paid by producers in respect of the production, sale, purchase and use of goods, and which the producers treat as an expense of production. The main taxes included are customs duty, and excise duties. Other taxes on production and imports include fringe benefit tax, taxes on gambling and various regulatory charges and fees, such as road user charges.

Income taxes: Income tax paid (net of refunds) by individuals and companies. No allowance is made for taxes due but not paid.

Current transfers, and other current taxes: These include voluntary and compulsory transfers, fees, fines and levies. Included are receipts, such as pensions received by the New Zealand Government from other countries for disbursement to ex-residents of those countries and motor vehicle registration fees.

Social contributions: This is the contra entry to the notional Government Superannuation Fund contributions made by departments on behalf of employees. This payment is also included in compensation of employees.

Capital expenditure
Gross Fixed Capital Formation: Gross fixed capital formation is expenditure by departments on new or existing fixed assets (net of sales). Fixed assets consist of tangible or intangible assets that have come into existence as outputs from processes of production, and that are themselves used repeatedly or continuously in other processes of production. It includes capital expenditure on New Zealand embassies overseas, which are considered New Zealand territory. It is possible for the gross fixed capital formation to be negative if the value of assets sold or transferred exceeds purchases.

Changes in inventories: Represents the change in levels of inventory, from the stock held at the start of the period to the stock held at the end of the period using GAAP valuations. No 'inventory valuation adjustment' is made to align with the valuation used in the NZSNA.

Net purchases of land: Represents a transfer of an asset, not the creation of an asset, and as such is identified separately from gross fixed capital formation.

Investment grants: Investment grants consist of capital transfers in cash or in kind made by governments to other resident or non-resident institutional units to finance all or part of the costs of their acquiring fixed assets. These grants are often tied to specific investment projects, such as new hospitals, or community irrigation schemes.

Capital transfers: Unrequited payments, which would be regarded by the recipient as being of a capital nature, that is, those payments that would normally be intended to alter the net worth of the enterprise. Included are debt restructuring transfers, Treaty of Waitangi claims, and large compensation payments.

Financing of capital expenditure

Capital transfers: Unrequited capital receipts.

Net borrowing/lending: The residual of the capital account. If accumulation is greater than the funds available for its financing then the balance must be 'borrowed'. Conversely, if funds available to finance capital accumulation are greater than the amount spent on accumulation, then the balance will be available for 'lending'. Lending and borrowing have wider meanings than in normal usage. Lending can take the form of increasing cash balances (reserves); borrowing can take the form of decreasing such reserves.




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Statistics New Zealand gives no warranty that the information or data supplied contains no errors. However, all care and diligence has been used in processing, analysing and extracting the information. Statistics New Zealand shall not be liable for any loss or damage suffered by the customer consequent upon the use directly, or indirectly, of the information supplied in this product.
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