Statistical Standard for Iwi 2000


Hide details for DefinitionDefinition

Rationale for StandardStatistics on the size and demographic characteristics of Iwi affiliates are needed
  • to allow the Crown and Iwi to monitor the performance of Treaty of Waitangi obligations,
  • to assist in allocating resources and funds to Iwi,
  • to assist Iwi in planning social and economic developments,
  • to assist Waitangi Tribunal decisions on land ownership, fishing rights, etc,
  • to assist central, regional and local government agencies planning and providing services to Iwi in areas such as housing, health, social welfare and special assistance programmes,
  • to assist local government in the administration of the Resource Management Act 1991.
DefinitionThe concept of Iwi has changed over time. The definition given in the 1989 discussion paper Towards a Standard Classification of Iwi (Maori tribes) was adopted for the purposes of developing this standard, viz.
“The Iwi today is the focal economic and political unit of the traditional Mäori descent and kinship based hierarchy of:
Waka (founding canoe)
|
Iwi (tribe)
|
Hapü (sub-tribe)
|
Whänau (family).”
This standard is prepared for statistical purposes only. It is not meant to be read as a final list of Iwi. Statistics New Zealand will amend the list of Iwi from time to time.
Operational IssuesIn deciding whether or not a tribal group will be classified as an Iwi consideration is given to:
  • whether the group has been separately categorised in earlier Iwi or tribal classifications,
  • whether the group has been identified by respondents in previous surveys or censuses,
  • whether there is a history of the group operating as a separate Iwi in a business or resource management capacity, with legal and/or administrative recognition as such,
  • whether historical and genealogical tradition identify the group as distinctive,
  • whether the group (as hapü of a larger Iwi) is moving to acquire or petition for Iwi status.
Population size is not a major determinant in deciding whether to treat a group as a separate category in the classification of Iwi.

Although regional variations in dialect have been noted among speakers of te reo Mäori, linguistic differentiation is not a criterion for defining classification categories.
Explanatory NotesRecommendation 6 of the Report of the Review Committee on Ethnic Statistics (1988) states “… the Departments of Statistics [now Statistics New Zealand] and Mäori Affairs [now Te Puni Kökiri (Ministry of Mäori Development)] develop a standard classification of tribal affiliation …”.

The classification has been entitled Iwi, rather than tribe, as more appropriate to the categories being classified. Affiliation is not included in the title. The classification is used for coding Iwi affiliation but it could also be used for other purposes, e.g. recording asset ownership by Iwi.

In 1991, in accordance with the requirements of the Runanga Iwi Act 1990, Census of Population and Dwellings asked people of Mäori ancestry “What is the main iwi (tribe) you belong to?” and “What other iwi (tribes) do you have strong ties with?” Ranking Iwi into main and other is meaningless and, to many Mäori, offensive; such a hierarchical concept should be avoided when collecting information on people’s affiliation to Iwi.

The Runanga Iwi Act was repealed in 1991.


Hide details for Classification and Coding ProcessClassification and Coding Process

Classification CriteriaThe Classification Criteria are as described above in the Operational Issues section.
ClassificationIwi is a hierarchical classification with two levels.

The first level represents Iwi region (rohe) and has nineteen categories. It is to be used for summary purposes only, and does not imply any future or present confederation of Iwi.

The second level shows individual Iwi and has 128 categories.

Eleven of the level 1 categories represent specific regions, while ninety-five of the level 2 categories represent specific Iwi. The remaining categories allow for respondents who:
  • state an Iwi, the name of which is common to more than one region, but do not specify the region,
  • give a geographic area without specifying an Iwi,
  • respond with a hapü that is affiliated to more than one Iwi,
  • respond with a waka or Iwi confederation,
  • do not know the name of their Iwi,
  • refuse to answer the question,
  • give a response that cannot be identified as a specific Iwi or region,
  • give a response that does not meet the definition of an Iwi,
  • do not answer the question.

The nineteen level 1 categories are as follows:

01 Te Tai Tokerau/Tämaki-makarau (Northland/Auckland) Region
02 Hauraki (Coromandel) Region
03 Waikato/Te Rohe Pötae (Waikato/King Country) Region
04 Te Arawa/Taupö (Rotorua/Taupö) Region
05 Tauranga Moana/Mätaatua (Bay of Plenty) Region
06 Te Tai Räwhiti (East Coast) Region
07 Te Matau-a-Mäui/Wairarapa (Hawkes Bay/Wairarapa) Region
08 Taranaki Region
09 Whanganui/Rangitïkei (Wanganui/Rangitïkei) Region
10 Manawatü/Horowhenua/Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Manawatü/Horowhenua/Wellington) Region
11 Te Waipounamu/Wharekauri (South Island/Chatham Islands) Regions
20 Iwi Not Named, but Waka or Iwi Confederation Known
21 Iwi Named but Region Unspecified
22 Hapü Affiliated to More Than One Iwi
44 Don't Know
55 Refused to Answer
77 Response Unidentifiable
88 Response Outside Scope
99 Not Stated

The complete classification is listed in Appendix 1.

The residual categories ‘Don't Know’, ‘Refused to Answer’, ‘Response Unidentifiable’, ‘Response Outside Scope’ and ‘Not Stated’ are defined under the heading ‘Glossary and References’.

The classification is stored in the Classifications and Related Standards System (CARS) under the subject ‘Mäori’ and the topic ‘Iwi’.

Link to Standard Classification
Coding
Process
To date, most Iwi data has been collected via a written response. Respondents are also asked to give the Iwi region. Regional information is used when an Iwi name is common to more than one region and to assist with difficult to code responses.

A codefile is used to code responses. A codefile is a comprehensive list of probable survey responses and the classification categories to which they are coded. Besides names of Iwi the codefile contains common spelling variations; older and traditional Iwi names; marae and meeting house names; ancestor names; hapü, waka and geographic landmarks which are specific to one Iwi; regional information to distinguish individual Iwi that share common names. The codefile is updated through CARS with responses that occur in departmental surveys.
Multiple ResponsesWhere respondents are asked to name the Iwi they affiliate with multiple responses should be expected. When more than the maximum number of responses is given there is no hierarchy for determining which Iwi affiliations should be captured; answers should be captured in the order in which they are given.
Waka or Iwi ConfederationIf a respondent names a waka or an Iwi confederation, rather than an Iwi, choose from among the level 1 code 20 'Iwi Not Named, but Waka or Iwi Confederation Known' categories.
Iwi Name Common to More than One RegionAlthough there are no legally defined Iwi geographic boundaries it is generally agreed that Iwi boundaries overlap. If a respondent names an Iwi which is common to more than one region, but the regional information they give is insufficient to confidently assign their affilliation to a particular Iwi, use one of the level 1 code 21 'Iwi Named but Region Unspecified' categories.

If a respondent names an Iwi which is common to more than one region, but does not name the region, use one of the level 1 code 21 'Iwi Named but Region Unspecified' categories.
Hapü Affiliated to More than One IwiIf a respondent names a hapü, the name of which is common to more than one Iwi, code to 2200 'Hapü Affiliated to More Than One Iwi'.


Hide details for Questionnaire ModuleQuestionnaire Module


RequirementsData on Iwi affiliation is best collected through a self-completion questionnaire or in a face-to-face interview. Unless interviewers are fluent speakers in te reo Mäori collecting information by telephone is likely to be difficult.

Nineteen percent of respondents to the 1996 Census of Population and Dwellings Iwi question stated that they did not know the name of their Iwi so providing a tick box for this option will speed processing.

As some Iwi names are common to more than one region, to enable the correct Iwi code to be assigned, information must be sought on both the Iwi and the region where the Iwi is tangata whenua.

Sufficient room must be provided on the questionnaire for respondents to be able to supply both the Iwi name and the region.
ExampleThe questionnaire module below is an example of a questionnaire module that meets the requirements documented in this standard. Other questionnaire modules may vary in format but should conform to the requirements contained in this standard.



Hide details for OutputOutput


Standard
Output
The standard output classification is the same, two level, hierarchical classification as the input classification. The complete classification is in Appendix 1 (beginning page 13). Level 1 of the Classification is below.
New Zealand Standard Classification of Iwi (Level 1)

Te Tai Tokerau/Tämaki-makarau (Northland/Auckland) Region
Hauraki (Coromandel) Region
Waikato/Te Rohe Pötae (Waikato/King Country) Region
Te Arawa/Taupö (Rotorua/Taupö) Region
Tauranga Moana/Mätaatua (Bay of Plenty) Region
Te Tai Räwhiti (East Coast) Region
Te Matau-a-Mäui/Wairarapa (Hawkes Bay/Wairarapa) Region
Taranaki Region
Whanganui/Rangitïkei (Wanganui/Rangitïkei) Region
Manawatü/Horowhenua/Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Manawatü/Horowhenua/ Wellington) Region
Te Waipounamu/Wharekauri (South Island/Chatham Islands) Region
Iwi Not Named, but Waka or Iwi Confederation Known
Iwi Named but Region Unspecified
Hapü Affiliated to More Than One Iwi
Don't Know
Refused to Answer
Response Unidentifiable
Response Outside Scope
Not Stated

Residual Categories

The residual categories may be output separately or combined. Where a combination item of residuals is to be used in output, this item should be labeled ‘Not Elsewhere Included’ and should have a footnote indicating its composition.

CARS

The output classification is stored in the Classifications and Related Standards System (CARS) under the subject ‘Mäori’ and the topic ‘Iwi’.

Iwi Profiles

Iwi Profiles’ data are derived from the Census of Population and Dwellings. From the 1996 Census there were 38 profiles produced, one for each Iwi (or group of Iwi) with a population of at least 1,000. There are two types of profiles, full and part profiles.

Full profiles distinguish between Iwi members living in the Iwi region and those living outside the Iwi region. From 1996 data 22 full profiles were produced, each with an Iwi population of more than 5,000.

Part profiles do not distinguish between the Iwi population living in the Iwi region and those living outside it. From 1996 data 16 part profiles were produced, each with an Iwi population of between 1,000 and 5,000.

Profiles were also produced following the 1991 Census.

Published Iwi profiles belong to the individual Iwi, not to Statistics New Zealand.

As the production of a full or part profile depends upon the population counts at the time of the Census, and because changes to the Iwi classification will impact on the composition of the profiles, details of profiles by Iwi are not included in this standard.

For information about the Iwi profiles please contact Social Policy division, Statistics New Zealand.


Show details for Related Classifications and StandardsRelated Classifications and Standards
Show details for Glossary and ReferencesGlossary and References
Hide details for Appendix 1Appendix 1

Appendix 1
ClassificationNew Zealand Standard Classification of Iwi

01 Te Tai Tokerau/Tämaki-makaurau (Northland/Auckland) Region
0100 Te Tai Tokerau/Tämaki-makaurau (Northland/Auckland) Region not further defined
0101 Te Aupöuri
0102 Ngäti Kahu
0103 Ngäti Kurï
0104 Ngäpuhi
0105 Ngäpuhi ki Whäingaroa-Ngäti Kahu ki Whäingaroa
0106 Te Rarawa
0107 Ngäi Takoto
0108 Ngäti Wai
0109 Ngäti Whätua
0110 Te Kawerau
0111 Te Uri-o Hau
0112 Te Roroa

02 Hauraki (Coromandel) Region
0200 Hauraki (Coromandel) Region not further defined
0201 Ngäti Hako
0202 Ngäti Hei
0203 Ngäti Maru (Marutuahu)
0204 Ngäti Paoa
0205 Patukirikiri
0206 Ngäti Porou ki Harataunga ki Mataora
0207 Ngäti Pükenga ki Waiau
0208 Ngäti Rähiri Tumutumu
0209 Ngäti Tai
0210 Ngäti Tamaterä
0211 Ngäti Tara Tokanui
0212 Ngäti Whanaunga
03 Waikato/Te Rohe Pötae (Waikato/King Country) Region
0300 Waikato/Te Rohe Pötae (Waikato/King Country) Region not further defined
0301 Ngäti Haua (Waikato)
0302 Ngäti Maniapoto
0303 Ngäti Raukawa (Waikato)
0304 Waikato
04 Te Arawa/Taupö (Rotorua/Taupö) Region
0400 Te Arawa/Taupö (Rotorua/Taupö) Region not further defined
0401 Ngäti Pikiao (Te Arawa)
0402 Ngäti Rangiteaorere (Te Arawa)
0403 Ngäti Rangitihi (Te Arawa)
0404 Ngäti Rangiwewehi (Te Arawa)
0405 Tapuika (Te Arawa)
0406 Taräwhai (Te Arawa)
0407 Tühourangi (Te Arawa)
0408 Uenuku-Köpako (Te Arawa)
0409 Waitaha (Te Arawa)
0410 Ngäti Whakaue (Te Arawa)
0411 Ngäti Tüwharetoa
0412 Ngäti Tahu (Te Arawa)
05 Tauranga Moana/Mätaatua (Bay of Plenty) Regio
0500 Tauranga Moana/Mätaatua (Bay of Plenty) Region not further defined
0501 Ngäti Pükenga
0502 Ngäiterangi
0503 Ngäti Ranginui
0504 Ngäti Awa
0505 Ngäti Manawa
0506 Ngäi Tai
0507 Tühoe
0508 Whakatöhea
0509 Whänau-A-Apanui
0510 Ngäti Whare
06 Te Tai Räwhiti (East Coast) Region
0600 Te Tai Rawhiti (East Coast) Region not further defined
0601 Ngäti Porou
0602 Te Aitanga-A-Mähaki
0603 Rongowhakaata
0604 Ngäi Tämanuhiri
07 Te Matau-a-Mäui/Wairarapa (Hawkes Bay/Wairarapa) Region
0700 Te Matau-a-Mäui/Wairarapa (Hawkes Bay/Wairarapa) Region not further defined
0701 Rongomaiwahine (Te Mähia)
0702 Ngäti Kahungunu ki Te Wairoa
0703 Ngäti Kahungunu ki Heretaunga
0704 Ngäti Kahungunu ki Wairarapa
0705 Ngäti Kahungunu, region unspecified
0706 Rangitäne (Te Matau-a-Mäui/Hawkes Bay/Wairarapa)
0707 Ngäti Kahungunu ki Whanganui a Orotu
0708 Ngäti Kahungunu ki Tamatea
0709 Ngäti Kahungunu ki Tamakinui a Rua
08 Taranaki (Taranaki) Region
0800 Taranaki (Taranaki) Region not further defined
0801 Te Atiawa (Taranaki)
0802 Ngäti Maru (Taranaki)
0803 Ngäti Mutunga (Taranaki)
0804 Ngä Rauru
0805 Ngä Ruahine
0806 Ngäti Ruanui
0807 Ngäti Tama (Taranaki)
0808 Taranaki
0809 Tangähoe
0810 Pakakohi
09 Whanganui/Rangitïkei (Wanganui/Rangitïkei) Region
0900 Whanganui/Rangitïkei (Wanganui/Rangitïkei) Region not further defined
0901 Ngäti Apa (Rangitïkei)
0902 Te Ati Hau Nui-A-Päpärangi
0903 Ngäti Haua (Taumarunui)
0904 Ngäti Hauiti
10 Manawatü/Horowhenua/Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Manawatü/Horowhenua/Wellington) Region
1000 Manawatü/Horowhenua/Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Manawatü/Horowhenua/Wellington) Region not further defined
1001 Te Atiawa (Te Whanganui-a-Tara /Wellington)
1002 Muaüpoko
1003 Rangitäne (Manawatü)
1004 Ngäti Raukawa (Horowhenua/Manawatü)
1005 Ngäti Toarangatira (Te Whanganui-a-Tara /Wellington)
1006 Te Atiawa ki Whakarongotai
11 Te Waipounamu/Wharekauri (South Island/Chatham Islands) Region
1100 Te Waipounamu/Wharekauri (South Island/Chatham Islands) Region not further defined
1101 Te Atiawa (Te Waipounamu/South Island)
1102 Ngäti Koata
1103 Ngäti Kuia
1104 Käti Mamoe
1105 Moriori
1106 Ngäti Mutunga (Wharekauri/Chatham Islands)
1107 Rangitäne (Te Waipounamu/South Island)
1108 Ngäti Rärua
1109 Ngäi Tahu / Käi Tahu
1110 Ngäti Tama (Te Waipounamu/South Island)
1111 Ngäti Toarangatira (Te Waipounamu/South Island)
1112 Waitaha (Te Waipounamu/South Island)
1113 Ngäti Apa ki te Waipounamu
20 Iwi Not Named, but Waka or Iwi Confederation Known
2001 Tainui
2002 Te Arawa
2003 Takitimu
2004 Aotea
2005 Mätaatua
2006 Mahuru
2007 Mämari
2008 Ngätokimatawhaorua
2009 Nukutere
2010 Tokomaru
2011 Kurahaupo
2012 Muriwhenua
2013 Hauraki / Pare Hauraki
2014 Turanganui a Kiwa
2015 Te Tauihu o Te Waka a Mäui
2016 Tauranga Moana
2017 Horouta
21 Iwi Named but Region Unspecified
2101 Te Atiawa, region unspecified
2102 Ngäti Haua, region unspecified
2103 Ngäti Maru, region unspecified
2104 Ngäti Mutunga, region unspecified
2105 Rangitäne, region unspecified
2106 Ngäti Raukawa, region unspecified
2107 Ngäti Tama, region unspecified
2108 Ngäti Toarangatira, region unspecified
2109 Waitaha, region unspecified
2110 Ngäti Apa, region unspecified
22 Hapü Affiliated to More Than One Iwi
2200 Hapü Affiliated to More Than One Iwi
44 Don't Know
4444 Don't Know
55 Refused to Answer
5555 Refused to Answer
77 Response Unidentifiable
7777 Response Unidentifiable
88 Response Outside Scope
8888 Response Outside Scope
99 Not Stated
9999 Not Stated


Retention:

Please feel free to contact our Information Centre

Information Centre:

Phone: 0508 525 525 (toll free within New Zealand)
Fax: +64 4 931 4079
Email: info@stats.govt.nz

Wellington:

Statistics House
The Boulevard, Harbour Quays
PO Box 2922
Wellington

Auckland:

UniServices House
70 Symonds Street
Private Bag 92003
Auckland

Christchurch:

Dollan House
401 Madras Street
Private Bag 4741
Christchurch

Hours: 8am to 5pm, Monday to Friday (excluding public holidays).